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    RIO DEKLARASYONU (İngilizce)


    United Nations
     

    A/CONF.151/26 (Vol. I)

    General Assembly

    Distr. GENERAL
    12 August 1992 

    ORIGINAL: ENGLISH


     
                 	REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON 
                        	ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT*
    
                      (Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992)
    
    
                                   Annex I
    
               RIO DECLARATION ON ENVIRONMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
    
    
        The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development,
    
        Having met at Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992,
    
        Reaffirming the Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human
    Environment, adopted at Stockholm on 16 June 1972, a/ and seeking to build upon
    it,
    
        With the goal of establishing a new and equitable global partnership
    through the creation of new levels of cooperation among States, key sectors of
    societies and people,
    
        Working towards international agreements which respect the interests of
    all and protect the integrity of the global environmental and developmental
    system,
    
        Recognizing the integral and interdependent nature of the Earth, our
    home,
    
        Proclaims that:
    
                                 Principle 1
    
        Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development. 
    They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.
    
    
                                 Principle 2
    
        States have, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations and the
    principles of international law, the sovereign right to exploit their own
    resources pursuant to their own environmental and developmental policies, and
    the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or
    control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas
    beyond the limits of national jurisdiction.
    
    
                                 Principle 3
    
        The right to development must be fulfilled so as to equitably meet
    developmental and environmental needs of present and future generations.
    
                                 Principle 4
    
        In order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection
    shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be
    considered in isolation from it.
    
    
                                 Principle 5
    
        All States and all people shall cooperate in the essential task of
    eradicating poverty as an indispensable requirement for sustainable
    development, in order to decrease the disparities in standards of living and
    better meet the needs of the majority of the people of the world.
    
    
                                 Principle 6
    
        The special situation and needs of developing countries, particularly the
    least developed and those most environmentally vulnerable, shall be given
    special priority.  International actions in the field of environment and
    development should also address the interests and needs of all countries.
    
    
                                 Principle 7
    
        States shall cooperate in a spirit of global partnership to conserve,
    protect and restore the health and integrity of the Earth's ecosystem.  In view
    of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have
    common but differentiated responsibilities.  The developed countries
    acknowledge the responsibility that they bear in the international pursuit of
    sustainable development in view of the pressures their societies place on the
    global environment and of the technologies and financial resources they
    command.
    
    
                                 Principle 8
    
        To achieve sustainable development and a higher quality of life for all
    people, States should reduce and eliminate unsustainable patterns of production
    and consumption and promote appropriate demographic policies.
    
    
                                 Principle 9
    
        States should cooperate to strengthen endogenous capacity-building for
    sustainable development by improving scientific understanding through exchanges
    of scientific and technological knowledge, and by enhancing the development,
    adaptation, diffusion and transfer of technologies, including new and
    innovative technologies.
    
    
                                Principle 10
    
        Environmental issues are best handled with the participation of all
    concerned citizens, at the relevant level.  At the national level, each
    individual shall have appropriate access to information concerning the
    environment that is held by public authorities, including information on
    hazardous materials and activities in their communities, and the opportunity
    to participate in decision-making processes.  States shall facilitate and
    encourage public awareness and participation by making information widely
    available.  Effective access to judicial and administrative proceedings,
    including redress and remedy, shall be provided.
    
    
                                Principle 11
    
        States shall enact effective environmental legislation.  Environmental
    standards, management objectives and priorities should reflect the
    environmental and developmental context to which they apply.  Standards applied
    by some countries may be inappropriate and of unwarranted economic and social
    cost to other countries, in particular developing countries.
    
    
                                Principle 12
    
        States should cooperate to promote a supportive and open international
    economic system that would lead to economic growth and sustainable development
    in all countries, to better address the problems of environmental degradation. 
    Trade policy measures for environmental purposes should not constitute a means
    of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination or a disguised restriction on
    international trade.  Unilateral actions to deal with environmental challenges
    outside the jurisdiction of the importing country should be avoided. 
    Environmental measures addressing transboundary or global environmental
    problems should, as far as possible, be based on an international consensus.
    
    
                                Principle 13
    
        States shall develop national law regarding liability and compensation
    for the victims of pollution and other environmental damage.  States shall also
    cooperate in an expeditious and more determined manner to develop further
    international law regarding liability and compensation for adverse effects of
    environmental damage caused by activities within their jurisdiction or control
    to areas beyond their jurisdiction.
    
    
                                Principle 14
    
        States should effectively cooperate to discourage or prevent the
    relocation and transfer to other States of any activities and substances that
    cause severe environmental degradation or are found to be harmful to human
    health.
    
    
                                Principle 15
    
        In order to protect the environment, the precautionary approach shall be
    widely applied by States according to their capabilities.  Where there are
    threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty
    shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent
    environmental degradation.
    
    
                                Principle 16
    
        National authorities should endeavour to promote the internalization of
    environmental costs and the use of economic instruments, taking into account
    the approach that the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of
    pollution, with due regard to the public interest and without distorting
    international trade and investment.
    
    
                                Principle 17
    
        Environmental impact assessment, as a national instrument, shall be
    undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significant
    adverse impact on the environment and are subject to a decision of a competent
    national authority.
    
    
                                Principle 18
    
        States shall immediately notify other States of any natural disasters or
    other emergencies that are likely to produce sudden harmful effects on the
    environment of those States.  Every effort shall be made by the international
    community to help States so afflicted.
    
                                Principle 19
    
        States shall provide prior and timely notification and relevant
    information to potentially affected States on activities that may have a
    significant adverse transboundary environmental effect and shall consult with
    those States at an early stage and in good faith.
    
    
                                Principle 20
    
        Women have a vital role in environmental management and development. 
    Their full participation is therefore essential to achieve sustainable
    development.
    
    
                                Principle 21
    
        The creativity, ideals and courage of the youth of the world should be
    mobilized to forge a global partnership in order to achieve sustainable
    development and ensure a better future for all.
    
    
                                Principle 22
    
        Indigenous people and their communities and other local communities have
    a vital role in environmental management and development because of their
    knowledge and traditional practices.  States should recognize and duly support
    their identity, culture and interests and enable their effective participation
    in the achievement of sustainable development.
    
    
                                Principle 23
    
        The environment and natural resources of people under oppression,
    domination and occupation shall be protected.
    
    
                                Principle 24
    
        Warfare is inherently destructive of sustainable development.  States
    shall therefore respect international law providing protection for the
    environment in times of armed conflict and cooperate in its further
    development, as necessary.
    
    
                                Principle 25
    
        Peace, development and environmental protection are interdependent and
    indivisible.
    
    
                                Principle 26
    
        States shall resolve all their environmental disputes peacefully and by
    appropriate means in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.
    
    
                                Principle 27
    
        States and people shall cooperate in good faith and in a spirit of
    partnership in the fulfilment of the principles embodied in this Declaration
    and in the further development of international law in the field of sustainable
    development.
    
    
    * * * * *
        a/    Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment,
    Stockholm, 5-16 June 1972 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.73.II.A.14
    and corrigendum), chap. I.

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    Date last updated: 23 Eylül, 2002 by DESA/DSD
    Copyright © 1999 United Nations